Saturday, April 2, 2016

Can/ Could

Can/ Could
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အသစ္မေရးဖုိ႔ မအားလုိ႕ အေဟာင္းျပန္တင္ ။ မဖတ္ရေသးသူ အတြက္ အသစ္ ၊ သိျပီးသူမ်ား လည္း ျပန္ေႏြးႏုိ္င္ရန္ ရည္ရြယ္ပါသည္။
Can ႏုိင္သည္ ၊ Can ႏုိင္သည္။ Can ရဲ႕ Past Tense- Could အဲ့ဒီလုိ မွတ္တာ ကေလးငယ္ဘ၀မွာ ကိစၥမရိွေသးေပမယ့္ Level ျမင့္လာသည္အထိ အဲ့ဒီလုိပဲ စြဲမွတ္ထားရင္ နာလည္မႈအပုိင္းမွာ ေတာ္ေတာ္ ဒုကၡေပးႏုိင္ပါတယ္။ Level အလုိက္ ေျပာင္းလာသလုိ၊ သုံးပုံ ၊ သုံးနည္းကုိလည္း ကေလးအဆင့္က မွတ္ထားတာေလာက္နဲ႕ ရပ္မထား သင့္ဘူး။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ မသိေသးေသာ သူမ်ား၊ ရႈပ္ေနေသာသူမ်ား အတြက္ ကၽြန္ေတာ္ေလ့လာထားသေလာက္ကုိ ရွင္းပါမယ္။
နံပါတ္ (၁) အားလုံးရင္းႏွီးတဲ့ ..ႏုိ္င္သည္.... ကေနပဲ စေလ့လာၾကတာေပါ့။
လုပ္ႏုိင္တယ္၊ တတ္တယ္ ေပါ့ ။ အဂၤလိပ္လုိေတာ့ You know how to do it.
Ability:ရိွတာေပါ့ဗ်ာ။ တစ္စုံတစ္ခုကုိ လုပ္တတ္ဖုိ႔ဆုိတာ Skill ( ကၽြမ္းက်င္မႈ ) လုိအပ္တယ္။ ထုိ ကၽြမ္းက်င္မႈကုိရဖုိ႔ ၊ လုပ္ေဆာင္မႈနဲ႕ အခ်ိန္လုိအပ္တယ္။
- ဥပမာ.. ဘာသာစကား အမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳး ေျပာတတ္ဖုိ႔ ေလ့လာအားထုတ္မႈ၊ အခ်ိန္လုိအပ္တယ္။
> She can speak several languages.
ငါးတစ္ေကာင္လုိ ေရကူးတတ္တယ္။ ဒါလည္း ( ability Or Skill ) ပဲ။ ဒီလုိ ကၽြမ္းက်င္ဖုိ႔ အခ်ိန္၊ ေလ့က်င့္မႈလုိတယ္။
> He can swim like a fish.
သူက ဒီ ေသတၱာကို မႏုိင္တယ္။
> He can lift this box.
ေလးတဲ့ ေသတၱာကုိ မနုိင္ဖုိ႔ သန္မာဖုိ႔လုိတယ္..အဲ့လုိ သန္မာဖုိ႔ ေလ့က်င့္ဖုိ႔လုိတယ္။ တစ္ခ်ိဳ႕မ်ားၾကေတာ့ Superman လုိ ေမြးကတည္းက သန္မာတာ.. ( General abilities ) ရိွတာေပါ့ေလ။ ဘာပဲေျပာေျပာ..Can ရဲ႕ နံပါတ္ ( ၁ ) အသုံးက .. Skill or general ability )
- အဲ့ဒီလုိ Skill or ability မရိွရင္ေတာ့ အျငင္းကိန္း Cannot , Can't ေပါ့။
They can’t dance very well.
ႈ I can't speak Chinese.
We use can to talk about someone’s skill or general abilities:
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သူရဲ႕ Past Tense က...Could / was able to / Managed to ./ succeeded in
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- General ability သက္သက္ကုိ ေျပာခ်င္ရင္. Could . ဥပမာ..
ကၽြန္ေတာ္ငယ္ငယ္က အရမ္း အေျပးသန္တာ။ ငယ္စဥ္ကဆုိေတာ့ အတိတ္။..ကုိယ့္ရ႕ဲ အတိတ္က ရိွခဲ့ေသာ Skill ၊ ability ကုိေျပာျပရုံပဲဆုိေတာ့
When I was young, I could run fast.
I could swim when I was 6 years old.
My sister could talk when she was 15 months old.
- ဒီေနရာမွာ was able to ကုိ သုံးလည္းရပါတယ္။
I was able to swim when I was 6 years old.
My sister could talk when she was 15 months old. စသည္ျဖင့္..
သုိ႕ေသာ္ တိက်ေသာ အေျခအေန ၊ သီးျခား အေျခအေနမွာေတာ့ was/were able to ကုိသုံးရတယ္။
Even though I'd hurt my leg, I was able to swim back to the boat.
ေျခေထာက္နာေနတဲ့ အေျခအေနမွာေတာင္ သူက ေရာက္ေအာင္ ကူးႏုိင္တယ္ဆုိေတာ့ ....
..
ဒီလုိအေျခအေနမွာ Could ကုိ သုံးလုိ႔ မရပါဘူး။ ငယ္စဥ္က ၾကားဖူးတဲ့ ဥပမာေလးနဲ႕ ရွင္းျပခ်င္ပါတယ္။ နယူတန္ဟာ အိမ္မွာ ေၾကာင္မၾကီး ကေလးေမြးေတာ့ ေၾကာင္မၾကီးအတြက္ အေပါက္တစ္ေပါက္ ၊ ေၾကာင္ကေလးေတြ အတြက္ အေပါက္တစ္ေပါက္ ေဖာက္ေပးတယ္တဲ့။ ပညာရွင္ဆုိေတာ့ အေတြးအေသးစိတ္ အေတြးလြန္သြားတာ ေနမယ္.. ဒါေလးကုိ ဥပမာယူျပီး ေျပာျပခ်င္တယ္. ေၾကာင္ ေပါက္စေလးေတြ ဟာ သူ႕အေမၾကီးအတြက္ ေဖာက္ေပးထားတဲ့ အေပါက္ကုိလည္း ၀င္လုိ႕ရတယ္.. သူတုိ႕နဲ႕ ဆန္႕တာကုိး.၊ ေၾကာင္မၾကီးကေတာ့ ေၾကာင္ေလးေတြအတြက္ ေဖာက္ထားတဲ့ အေပါက္ေသးေသးေလးကုိ မဆန္႔ေတာ့ ၀င္လုိ႔မရဘူး။ was able to က ေၾကာင္ေပါက္ကေလးနဲ႕ တူတယ္..သူက အေျခအေန ႏွစ္ရပ္လုံးမွာ သုံးႏုိင္တယ္။
Could က ေၾကာင္မၾကီးနဲ႕ တူတယ္.. General ability မွာပဲ သုံးနုိင္ျပီး ၊ အတိတ္မွာ အေျခအေနတစ္ခုမွာ လုပ္ခဲ့ေသာ စြမ္းရည္ ၊ လုပ္ႏုိင္ခဲ့မႈကုိ ေျပာခ်င္ရင္ was able to ေနရာမွာ Could က ၀င္သုံးလုိ႔ မရပါဘူး။
...
The manager wasn't in the office for very long, but we were able to speak to him for a few minutes.
မန္ေနဂ်ာက ရုံးမွာ အၾကာၾကီး မရိွခဲ့ဘူး .. ဒါေပမယ့္ ငါတုိ႕ သူကုိ စကားခဏေတာ့ ေျပာႏုိင္ခဲ့တယ္။
-.ကၽြန္ေတာ္ ငယ္ငယ္က မီတာ ၁၀၀ ကုိ အလြန္ မေမာပဲ ကူးႏုိင္တယ္။ ( Could )
- ျမင္းကပါမွာ စီးခ်င္းထုိးတာ ေနာက္ဆုံးမွာ စုကၠေတးမင္းကုိ အေနာ္ရထာက အသည္းအသန္ အႏုိင္ယူနိင္ခဲ့တယ္။ ( was able to / managed to / succeeded in )
- အေနာ္ရထာမင္းၾကီးဟာ တုိင္းသူ ျပည္သားေတြကုိ ၾကြယ္၀ျပည့္စုံစြာ ထားႏုိင္ခဲ့တယ္။ ( Could )
- မေန႕က မီးေလာင္တဲ့ ရြာကုိ အ၀တ္အစားေတြသြားလွဴတာ ..လူေတြက အရမ္းမ်ားေတာ့ မေလာက္ဘူးထင္တာ.. ဒါေပမယ့္ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တုိ႕ ေလာက္ငွေအာင္ လုပ္ေဆာင္ႏုိင္ခဲ့တယ္။ ( was able to / managed to )
- ဗုိလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္းတြင္ လူမ်ားအား စည္းရုံးႏုိ္င္ေသာ အရည္အခ်င္းရိွခဲ့တယ္။ ( Could )
- ဗုိလ္ခ်ဳပ္ ေအာင္ဆန္းသည္ ပင္လုံစာခ်ဳပ္ ခ်ဳပ္ဆုိရန္ တုိင္းရင္းသားမ်ားအား အခ်ိန္မီ စည္းရုံးႏုိင္ခဲ့သည္။ ( was able to / managed to / succeeded in )
- Maria was able to swim to the rocks and rescue the child.
- သူရဲ႕ အျငင္းကိန္းကေတာ့ ရွင္းပါတယ္.....မလုပ္ႏုိ္င္ဘူးဆုိေတာ့ ၊ လုပ္ႏုိင္တဲ့ အရည္အခ်င္း ( Skill / ability ) မရိွ ၊ အေျခတစ္ရပ္မွာလည္း လုပ္ခဲ့တာ မရိွဆုိေတာ့ ေခါင္းစားခံျပီး was/were able to လား ၊ Could လားေတြးစရာမလုိေတာ့ဘူးေလ။ .....မလုပ္ခဲ့ႏုိင္မွေတာ့.တိက်ေသာ အေျခအေန တစ္ရပ္မွာ မလုပ္ႏုိင္နိင္ခဲ့ဘူး.. ဒီေတာ့ Couldn't ပဲ။.. wasn't able to / weren't able to သုံးလည္းရတယ္.။
My grandmother couldn't dance.
He tried very hard, but he couldn't swim back to the boat.
- အတိတ္မွာ သီးျခားအေျခအေန တစ္ရပ္ တကယ္လုပ္ႏုိင္ခဲ့တယ္..ဒါေပမဲ့ Action ကုိ မျပေသာ.. The verbs of Perception ေတြ... see, hear, smell, taste, feel .
We could see a man in the garden.
I could hear a noise outside my bedroom door.
AS son as I walked into the room, I could smell gas.
I could feel my heart bumping.
Everyone in the village could hear her voice.
I could see a few faint stars in a clear patch of sky.
Suddenly she realised she cold smell something burning.
Some verbs of thinking .believe, decided, understand, remember, စသည္တုိ႔ကုိေတာ့ မွာ Can ရဲ႕ Past က Could ပါ။
I could remember the crash, but nothing after that.
I could understand everything she said.
..........
Inter- level အဆင့္မွာ .. We can use be able to instead of can ..but Can is more common. လုိ႔ဆုိတယ္..
Advanced Level မွာေတာ့ အေသးထပ္စိတ္ပါတယ္။
(A) ေျပာေနတဲ့အခ်ိန္မွာ လုပ္ေနႏုိင္တာကုိ ေျပာရင္ .. Can..
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Watch me, Mum; I can stand on one leg. ( I'm able to stand on one leg လုိ႔ မသုံးပါဘူးတဲ့.. ( မွားတယ္လုိ႔ ေျပာတာ မဟုတ္ပါဘူး )
(B) before passives. ( Passive ေတြရဲ႕ ေရွ႕ )
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Valuables can be left in the hotel safe. Please ask at the reception desk.
( Valuables are able to be left .....ပုံစံကုိ မသုံးပါဘူး... ( more natural မျဖစ္တာ )
( C) When the meaning is " Know how to ." ( လုပ္နည္း ၊ ကုိင္နည္း သိတာ)
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Can you drive ?
Can you cook ?
Are you able to drive ?
Are you able to cook ? ေတြဟာ မွားတယ္လုိ႔ မဆုိလုိဘူး...သူတုိ႔ထက္.. Can you cook ? .. စသည္ျဖင့္ လုပ္နည္းကုိင္နည္းကုိ သိလား ၊ လုပ္တတ္လားဆုိတဲ့ ပုံစံက - More natural ၾကတာပါ။
(D) ခက္ခက္ခဲခဲ လုပ္ျပီးရလာတဲ့ ပုံစံမ်ိဳးကုိ be able to သုံး ၊ can လည္း ရ...
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Harry can't speak, but he is able to communicate with sign language.
(E) Can မွာ Present ရိွတယ္၊ Past ပုံစံေတြလည္း ေလ့လာခဲ့ျပီးျပီ၊ အနာဂတ္ကုိ ေဖာ္ျပခ်င္ရင္ ..... အနာဂတ္ကုိေဖာ္ျပတဲ့ စကားလုံးေတြ ပါရတယ္..
I can't sleep. ( Present )
I can come tomorrow. ( Future )
I could run fast when I was young. ( Past )
I was able to / managed to / succeeded in .......( past )
သုိ႔ေသာ္ .. Perfect ပုံစံ သုံးမယ္၊ တျခား အကူၾကိယာေတြနဲ႕ တြဲသုံးမယ္ဆုိရင္ေတာ့ be able to ကုိ မျဖစ္မေန သုံးရပါတယ္။
I can't sleep.
I haven't been able to sleep for 3 days. အိပ္မရတာ သုံးရက္ရိွျပီဗ်ာ.
I haven't been able to fine the answer yet.
ဒီလုိပဲ.. မစားႏုိင္တာ တစ္ပတ္ရိွျပီတုိ႕၊
လမ္းမေလွ်ာက္ႏုိင္တာ တစ္လရိွျပီတုိ႕.. သုံးေတာ့...
Haven't been able to + V1 ( infinitive )
- တျခား အကူ ၾကိယာေတြနဲ႕ တြဲသုံးဖုိ႔ လုိအပ္တဲ့အခါ....
- I can come tomorrow ..
> I might be able to come to come tomorrow.
- I can finish this tomorrow.
> I will be able to finish this tomorrow.
> I will be able to speak French at the end of this course.
- I used to be able to sing well.
- I'd like to be able to play the piano.
- I've never been able to get up early.
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ဆက္ေလ့လာခ်င္သူမ်ားအတြက္..
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" Could" can be regarded as the past tense of " can" if you are simply talking a bout the ability of a person or thing to do something.
For example, If you are talking about a living person, you can say " He can speak Russian and Finnish." If you are talking about a dead person, you can say " He could speak Russian and Finnish."
- After the phrases the only thing /place/ time, and after all when it means" the only thing:
All we could see were his feet.
- to suggest that something almost didn't happen, Particularly with almost, hardly, just, nearly..
I could nearly touch the ceiling.
ကုိးကား... Advanced Grammar in Use : Martin Hewings.
Macmillan English Grammar in Context : Michal Vince
Collins Cobuild English Grammar For Teachers of English
The Heineman English Grammar . Digby Beaumont >Colin Granger
English Grammar in Use : Raymond Murphy
Practical English Usage. Michael Swan
Can ရဲ႕ က်န္ေနေသာ ေခါင္းမႈးဖြယ္ အပုိင္းမ်ားကုိ ဆက္လက္ေရးသားပါမည္။
အႏွစ္ခ်ဳပ္ရေသာ္... Can ၏ ability အသုံးမွာ ... General Ability က Could.
The verbs of Perception ေတြ... see, hear, smell, taste, feel .ေတြ၊
Some verbs of thinking .believe, decided, understand, remember, မွာ Could ,
specific situation - မွာဆုိရင္ ..was able to /managed to / succeeded in ...အသည္းအသန္လုပ္တယ္.. လုိဘာသာျပန္လုိ႕ရပါတယ္။ ...
ယခု ေရးေသာ အရာမွာ အပုိင္းတစ္ခုပဲ ရိွပါေသးတယ္ ခင္ဗ်ာ..
အဆုံးအထိ ေသေသခ်ာခ်ာ ဖတ္ေသာသူမ်ားအား ေျပာခ်င္ပါတယ္.။ ဒီလိုေလ့လာမႈက Learner ေတြအတြက္ပါ၊ User ေတြ အတြက္ေတာ့ မလုိပါဘူး။ တကယ္ေတာ့ စာဖတ္တာက အေကာင္းဆုံးပါ
Can ရဲ႕ အသုံးမ်ားကုိ အေသးစိတ္ ေရးသားေနရာ.
မေန႔က နံပါတ္ (၁) .ability . နဲ႕အသုံးကုိ ေရးခဲ့ပါတယ္။
သူ႔ရဲ႕ Past Tense က.. general ability မွာ could
( Specific situation ) မွာ was /were able to / managed to / succeeded in ပုံစံသုံးျပီး၊
Present Perfect ပုံစံဆုိရင္ Has/Have been able to၊ အကူၾကိယာေတြနဲ႕ ထပ္ေပါင္းေရးမယ္ဆုိရင္ be able to နဲ႕သုံးရသည္.. စသည္ျဖင့္ ေရးခဲ့ပါတယ္။
ဒီေန႔ေတာ့ Permission အဓိပၸါယ္နဲ႔ ေရးပါမယ္။
နံပါတ္ (၂) Permission: ခြင့္ျပဳျခင္းဆုိင္ေသာ အေၾကာင္းမွာကုိ ေျပာဆုိလုိေသာ အခါမွာ သုံးပါတယ္။
(A) We use can to give permission:
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- Can ကုိ ခြင့္ျပဳျခင္းကုိ ေဖာ္ျပတဲ့အခါ သုံးပါတယ္။
> You can go home now if you like.
အိမ္ ျပန္ခ်င္ရင္ ျပန္လုိ႔ရတယ္။
> You can borrow my pen if you like.
ငါ့ ေဘာပင္ ငွားသုံးလုိ႔ရပါတယ္။
- You can drive a van up to 3- ton capacity using an ordinary driving licence.
- You can go off duty now.
- She can go with you.
Formal - ပုံစံဆုိရင္ ဒီေနရာမွာ- May အစားထုိးသုံးလုိ႔ရပါတယ္။
- You may speak.
-They may do exactly as they like.
(B) We use can to say that someone has permission to do something:
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- တစ္စုံတစ္ခုကုိ လုပ္ဖုိ႔ရန္ ခြင့္ျပဳခ်က္ ရိွတာကုိ ေဖာ္ျပရာမွာလည္း သုံးပါတယ္။
> We can go out whenever we want.
သြားခ်င္တဲ့အခ်ိန္ ငါတုိ႕ အျပင္သြားလုိ႔ရတယ္.
> Students can travel free.
ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ား အခမဲ့ ။ ( စီးႏုိင္ပါတယ္ ) ခရီးသြားႏုိင္တယ္။
> Students can use calculators during the exam.
စာေမးပြဲမွာ calculators သုံးခြင့္ရိွပါတယ္။
- We are totally free. We can do what we want.
- You can read my book.
- You can park over there.
- You can have a piece of cake after you've eaten your vegetables!
- Any police officer can insist on seeing a driver's license.
(C) We use can to ask for permission to do something:
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ခြင့္ျပဳခ်က္ေတာင္းခံတဲ့အခါမွာလည္း သုံးပါတယ္။
( ရမလား ၊ ပါရေစ )
(.ရုိးရိုး၀ါက်က ခြင့္ျပဳခ်က္ေပးတယ္ ၊ရိွတယ္၊ .ေမးခြန္းလုပ္ေတာ့ ခြင့္ျပဳခ်က္ေတာင္းခံတယ္ ျဖစ္သြားတာေပါ့။ က .. Permission to do ဆုိေတာ့ ေမးခြန္းေျပာင္းေတာ့ ask for permission ေတာင္းခံတယ္ေပါ့ဗ်ာ။ )
Permission:
> Can I ask a question, please?
တစ္ခုေလာက္ ေမးလုိ႔ရမလား ခင္ဗ်ာ။
> Can we go home now?
အိမ္ျပန္လုိ႔ ရျပီလား။
> Can I have some ?
ငါ့ကုိ လည္းေပးပါအုံး။ ( ဥပမာ.. တျခားသူ ထံမွက မုန္႕ေတြ ၊စားစရာေတာင္းတာ မ်ိဳး )
- Can I take him for a walk?
- Can I have a piece of paper please?
could is more formal and polite than can:
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ဒီေနရာမွာ သုံးတဲ့ Could က Past Tense မဟုတ္ဘူးဆုိတာ သိရမယ္။ ယဥ္ယဥ္ေက်းေက်းနဲ႕သုံးလုိက္တာပါ။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ Can ရဲ႕Past ဟာ Could အျမဲမဟုတ္သလုိ.. Could တုိင္းကလည္းCan ရဲ႕ Past မဟုတ္ဘူးဆုိတာ မွတ္သားသင့္တယ္။
Could you lend me ten kyats?
ကၽြန္ေတာ္ကုိ တစ္ဆယ္ေလာက္ေခ်းႏုိင္မလား။
Can I have some more bread?
ကၽြန္ေတာ္ ေနာက္ထပ္ ေပါင္မုန္႔မ်ား ရႏုိင္ပါေသးသလား။ လုိ႔ ( မ၀ံမရဲ သေဘာပါေအာင္ ) ယဥ္ေက်းတဲ့ ပုံစံမွာ သုံးတယ္လုိ႔ ဆရာဦးသာႏုိးရဲ႕ English Elements of the Language မွာ သုံးရွင္းျပထားပါတယ္။
Could I ask a question please?
Could we go home now?
Could I sit here a minute, Joyce?
Could you sign one of these too? Would you mind?
(D) We use can't to forbid ( say what you must not do )
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ရုိးရုိး၀ါက်ဟာ ခြင့္ျပဳခ်က္ေပးတယ္၊ ခြင့္ျပဳခ်က္ရိွတယ္ ဆုိေတာ့ အျငင္းကိန္းဟာ ခြင့္ျပဳခ်က္ မေပးဘူး၊ လုပ္ပုိင္ခြင့္ မေပးဘူးေပါ့။ ဥာဏ္ကုိ လႊာျပီးသုံးရင္လြယ္ပါတယ္။
> You can't park there- It's a no parking zone.
> You can't go home now.
> You can't wear jeans at work.
ability နဲ႔ Permission ေရာျပီး ယွဥ္ၾကည့္ရေအာင္။.
I can't speak English. က ability မရိွတာ. ငါအဂၤလိပ္စကား မေျပာတတ္ဘူး။
I can't park my car here. က Permission မရိွတာ။ ငါ့ကားကုိ ဒီမွာ ထုိးလုိ႔မရဘူး။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ အကုန္လုံးကုိ ႏုိင္သည္ ၊ ႏုိင္သည္ ဘာသာျပန္ရင္ အဆင္မေျပဘူး။
- I can watch TV as I like . ( ခြင့္ျပဳ )
I can play the piano. ငါ စႏၵရားတီးတတ္တယ္။ ( တီးတတ္ဖုိ႔ Skill လုိတယ္ ၊
Skill တစ္ခုရဖုိ႔ အၾကားၾကီး ၾကိဳးစားရပါတယ္)
She could play the piano when she was six.
She was able to play the piano very well at her friend's birthday party though she had been out of touch with it for ages.
သူကုိ သူငယ္ခ်င္းေတြက မေန႕က ပါတီပြဲမွာ အတင္းတီးခုိင္းေတာ့ မတီးတာၾကာသည့္ၾကားက အေကာင္းဆုံးတီးနိုိင္ခဲ့ဆုိတဲ့ ပုံစံမ်ိဳးမွာ Could သုံးလုိ႔ မရဘူး။
ဒီလုိပဲ .... Permission အဓိပၸါနယ္နဲ႕သုံးတဲ့ Can ရဲ႕ Past Tense ဟာ .General Permission ဆုိရင္ Could .
> When I was a child, I could watch TV whenever I wanted to.
> We could go to any part of the island we wanted to.
ကေလးတုန္းကဆုိ TV ကုိ ၾကည့္ခ်င္တဲ့ အခ်ိန္တုိင္း ၾကည့္လုိ႔ရတယ္။ ( General Permission ) ပါ ..ဒီလုိ အတိတ္မွာ ေယဘုယ် သေဘာ ခြင့္ျပဳခ်က္ရိွခဲ့တာကုိ ေျပာတဲ့အခါ Permission -Can ရဲ႕ Past Tense က Could ျဖစ္ေပမယ့္..
Yesterday evening, Peter was allowed to watch TV for an hour.
(မေန႔က ညေနခင္းက ပီတာကုိ တစ္နာရီၾကာ TV ၾကည့္ခြင့္ေပးခဲ့တယ္။ )
ဒီလုိအေျခအေန ၊သီးျခား အေျခအေနမွာေတာ့ Could သုံးလုိ႔မရပါဘူး။ Was/were allowed to ပုံစံကုိ သုံးရပါတယ္။
- Anyone was allowed to fish in the lake when the council owned it. or
Anyone could fish in the lake when the council owned it.
- Although he didn't have a ticket, Ken was allowed to come in. ဒီေနရာမွာေတာ့ Could သုံးလုိ႔မရေတာ့ပါဘူး။
သူရဲ႕ အျငင္းကိန္းကေတာ့ ရွင္းပါတယ္.. အတိတ္မွာ ခြင့္ျပဳခ်က္မွ မရိွခဲ့ေတာ့ Particular Past action လည္း မရိွဘူး။ ဒီေတာ့ ၾကိဳက္ရာသုံးလုိ႔ရပါတယ္။ မမွားဖုိ႔က Particular Past action ..ရုိးရုိး၀ါက် မွာ was/were allowed to သုံးဖုိ႔ပါပဲ။
We couldn't open the presents until Christmas morning.
We weren't allowed to open the presents until Christmas morning.
(1) ability . Can - Could ( general ability )
Can - was/ were able to ( specific achievement )
- managed to
- succeeded in
can't - Couldn't ( was/ were able to လည္း ရ)
(2) permission Can - Could ( General Permission )
- was/were allowed to ( Particular past action
can't - Couldn't ( was/ were allowed to )
- We can buy one comic each.
- We were allowed to buy one comic each.
-However, we do use Could to talk about past permission in reported speech.
Mum said we could buy one comich each.
အပုိဖတ္ရန္
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- We didn't know we could could see her.
- She had the nerve to ask me if she could sit at the end of our table.
- If you finish early you can go home.
- She can come whenever she likes, as far as I'm concerned.
- Finish up your dinner and you can have dessert.
- How early can you get off this afternoon?
- Anyone can go - you don't have to be invited.
-You can borrow my calculator if you want.
- Anyone aged 18 or over can vote in a general election.
- You can’t sit there. Those seats are reserved.
- Only the President could order the armed forces into battle.
- Can is used in standard spoken English when asking for permission. Could is slightly more formal. Both of these are acceptable in most forms of written English, although in very formal writing, such as official instructions, may is usually used instead.
Persons under 14 unaccompanied by an adult may not enter.
Ref:
: Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners 2nd Edition.
: Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary 3rd Edition
: Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 9th Edition
: Advanced Grammar in Use : Martin Hewings.
: Macmillan English Grammar in Context : Michal Vince
: Collins Cobuild English Grammar For Teachers of English.
: English Grammar in Use : Raymond Murphy
: Practical English Usage. Michael Swan
:Macmillan : Destination C1& C2 Grammar & Vocabulary :
: Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English
: Cambridge English Grammar Today

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